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Solomon is a mythical figure of the Old Testament. Third king of Israel, he reigned for 40 years. He is said to be wise, but also extremely rich. Son of David, the shepherd who defeated Goliath, Solomon inherited his kingdom. His encounter with the Queen of Sheba is one of the most famous episodes of the Holy Book. But did Solomon really exist? For a long time, historians have considered the biblical story as a reliable source of the chronology of the kings of Israel. This certainty has been challenged for the last thirty years by archaeologists who use the latest technologies to better understand the reality of Solomon's reign. Today, exceptional discoveries such as a tenth century B.C. temple built near Jerusalem or copper mines in the Negev desert show that the importance of Solomon's reign has proven historical basis.